The anthropomorphic fallacy in international relations discourse by Carlos Escudé


[1] E.H. Carr, The Twenty Years' Crisis, London: Macmillan, 1962; page 149.

[2] Maria Rosa Milos, a doctoral student at the University of Belgrano, brought to my attention this category of metaphors in international-relations discourse.

[3] P. Ariès and G. Duby (eds.), Historia de la Vida Privada, Buenos Aires: Taurus 1990,; Vol. I, page 109.

[4] In Ariès and Duby, op.cit. pages 255-256 and 284.

[5] J.G. Ruggie, "Continuity and transformation in the world polity: toward a neorealist synthesis", in R.O. Keohane, ed., Neorealism and its Critics, New York: Columbia University Press, 1986, p. 141-148.

[6] J.R. Strayer and D.C. Munro, The Middle Ages, 4th. edition, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts 1959, p. 115; cf. Ruggie, op.cit. p.142.

[7] I. Wallerstein, The Modern World System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century, New York: Academic Press, 1974, p. 32; cf. J.G. Ruggie op.cit. p. 155, note 22.

[8] J.G. Ruggie, op.cit. p. 143.

[9] J.G. Ruggie, op.cit. p. 143.

[10] J.G. Ruggie, op.cit. p. 144.

[11] J.C. Garnett, "States, State-Centric Perspectives, and Interdependence Theory", in J. Baylis and N.J. Rengger, Dilemmas of World Politics: International Issues in a Changing World, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1992; page 64.

[12] See, for example, Pericles' funeral oration. Thucydides, Historia de la Guerra del Peloponeso, México D.F.: Editorial Porrúa, 1989; page 83 (Book II, Chapter VII).

[13] R.O. Keohane "Theory of world politics: structural realism and beyond", in R.O. Keohane (ed.) op.cit. 1986, p. 186.

[14] Keohane and Nye, Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1977, pages 18, 19, and 53.

[15] K. Waltz, Theory of International Politics, Reading MA: Addison-Wesley, 1979, Spanish-language edition page 165.

[16] S.D. Krasner, Structural Conflict and the Third World, page 242 of the Spanish-language edition, my translation of the translation.

[17] H. Bull, The Anarchical Society, New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, p. 70.

[18] J.C. Garnett, "States, state-centric perspectives and interdependence theory", in J. Baylis and N.J. Rengger (eds.), Dilemmas of World Politics: International Issues in a Changing World, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1992, page 76.

[19] H.J. Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, New York: Albert P. Knopf, 1948, page 10.

[20] R.K. Ashley, "The poverty of neorealism", in R.O. Keohane (ed.), op.cit. 1986, p. 227.

[21] R.K. Ashley, op.cit. p. 279.

[22] R.K. Ashley, op.cit. p. 280.

[23] For the Argentine myths, see C. Escudé, El Fracaso del Proyecto Argentino: Educación e Ideología, Buenos Aires: Tesis/Instituto Di Tella 1990, and C. Escudé, "Contenido nacionalista de la enseñanza de la geografía en la Argentina, 1879-1986", in A. Borón and J. Faúndez (eds.), Malvinas Hoy: Herencia de un Conflicto, Buenos Aires: Puntosur 1989.

[24] Political discourse is particularly affected by this phenomenon, and speeches of leaders are often an anthology of anthropomorphisms,

[25] C. Escudé, La Argentina, ¿Paria Internacional?, Buenos Aires: Belgrano 1984, pages 118-119. The author cited is Miguel Angel Scenna, "Argentina-Chile: el secular diferendo", Part I, Todo es Historia, No. 43, Nov. 1970, page 10.


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